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The phloem is made up of living cells. Small holes through out the cell walls of these cells allow dissolved sugars to pass through.

These holes are called sieve plates.

These cells effectively form a tube which allows dissolved sugars to be transported.

Plants are an important part of life on earth. With out them life as know it would not exists.

Year 9 iGCSE - Biology


Transport systems

Like us, plants need to transport nutrients throughout their body.

From their roots to the flowers, they have a network of tubes which transport nutrients.

Plants have 2 main transport systems. The Xylem and Phloem.

The xylem transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem, leaves and flowers. Water moves into the roots through osmosis. Mineral ions are taken through active transport.

The phloem transports sugars and other food molecules from the leaves to all areas of the plant.

This is translocation. Sugars are taken to meristems (needed to make new plant cells) and storage in the roots.

Xylem vessels are made from dead xylem cells. This forms tubes through which the water and dissolved mineral ions can flow.

In woody plants, like trees, the xylem tissue makes up the bulk of the plants.

Quick Questions

1. What are the 2 main tubes in the plant

2. What does the xylem transport

3. How does water move into the roots

4. What is the Xylem made of?

Quick Questions

1. What is the role of the phloem?

2. How are the phloem and xylem different?

3. Define the term translocation

Vascular bundles throughout the plant helps to support.  


1. Copy and complete the sentence bellow

To survive plants need to move ________, _______ and __________ around. Plants use ____ different systems to do this: the _______ and the _______. They are made up of hollow _______ that go up and down the _______ length of the plant.

Xylem moves ________ and solutes (things like minerals ___________ in the water) from the ______ to the __________. Phloem moves _______ from the leaves to the ______ of the plant.

2. State why a constant supply of glucose and water are so important to the cells of a plant

3. Explain why the distribution of vascular bundles is different in different parts of a plant

4. State and explain the structural differences between xylem and phloem tubes.

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